Causes and Symptoms of Testicular Pain in Men

Pain in the testicles usually occurs due to some injury or disease of either one or both of the testes. It may range from a dull ache to a sharp persistent pain depending on the cause. Many people experience this pain due to a number of causes, but a very few consult their doctor in initial stages due to social or personal reasons.

Testicles are very delicate organs and have a vital function in the reproductive system of men. They have a good nervous supply, and even mild trauma or disease of this gland can cause immense pain and discomfort.

The most important cause of testicular pain is trauma. It can be of any form. For example, when something strikes the testicles, or it can be due to involuntary compression during sleep or excessive physical activity. In cases of mild trauma there is a feeling of dull ache and heaviness in the scrotal sac. But in severe cases, the pain can be excruciating.

Another important cause is the torsion of the testis. Normal testicles are suspended from the body and cannot rotate. In torsion of the testis there is usually abnormal rotation of the testicles. The pain is excruciating and is felt in the scrotal sac. It is a medical emergency and has to be addressed in the emergency department of a hospital to prevent permanent damage to the testicles. This condition is very common between the ages of 10 – 25 years and can be due to straining, lifting heavy weights, masturbation and coitus. Nausea and vomiting may accompany the pain. The affected testicle appears at a higher level.

Other causes of testicular pain include

  • Orchitis & epididymitis, which is basically the inflammation of the testicles due to infection or any other condition. An important infective condition is Chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Hydrocele, which is the accumulation of fluid inside the scrotal sac
  • Varicocele, that is the tortuous enlarged veins of the testicles. It is specially common in children with mumps infection in the childhood
  • Haematocele, which is accumulation of blood in the scrotal sac
  • Inguinal hernia, which is the protrusion of abdominal contents, mainly the intestines, into the scrotal sac
  • Gangrene, that is basically the death of testicular tissue as a result of untreated torsion or trauma
  • Diabetic neuropathy affecting the nerve supply of the testicles.

Testicular cancers do not present with pain. They usually present as painless lumps that are best assessed by the consulting physician.